Sep 3, 2014

Characteristics of Germanium-on-Insulators Fabricated by Wafer Bonding and Hydrogen-Induced Layer Splitting

There is considerable interest in germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) because of its advantages in terms of device performance and compatibility with silicon processing. In this paper, fabricating GeOI by hydrogen-induced layer splitting and wafer bonding is discussed. Hydrogen in germanium exists in molecular form and is prone to outdiffusion, resulting in a storage-time dependence of blistering. In contrast to the case of silicon, little effect of substrate doping on blistering is observed in germanium. Hydrogen implantation in germanium creates both {100}- and {111}-type microcracks. These two types of platelets are located in the same region for (111)-oriented wafers, but in different zones for (100) samples. This variation in distribution explains the smoother splitting of (111) surfaces than that of (100) surfaces. Hydrogen implantation also introduces a significant concentration of charged vacancies, which affect dopant diffusion in the transferred germanium film. Boron, with a negligible Fermi-level dependence, shows an identical diffusion profile to that of bulk germanium. In contrast, phosphorus diffusion is enhanced in the fabricated GeOI layers. These results also shed light on the understanding of dopant diffusion mechanisms in germanium.

Keywords:germanium diode,detector germanium,silicon germanium,germanium transistor,element germanium,
germanium n type wafer,germanium production

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